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This book has been written to provide an unbiased, comprehensive overview of the role that fats and
Fats and Oils DeMystified:
A Guide to their Health Effects

Steve Blake, ScD

 

June 2017

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Dr Frits Kamp, Biophysik, DZNE - Adolf Butenandt-Institute, Biochemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Muenchen, Germany
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“I was looking at your book today, and wanted to tell you how much I appreciate your excellent writing – you sure are great at making things understandable for readers! It is quite wonderful. I am so grateful for the wonderful work you are doing.”
Brenda Davis, Registered Dietician.

“Finally! All the information and lowdown about fats and oils in our food, in layman’s terms! Thank you so VERY much for doing the research and putting this together for the average person to educate him or herself in a way that the food industry won’t. I wouldn’t have begun to know where to look to get all this information. Thank you again.” Mary Branham

 

Please see below for the Introduction, the back cover, a detailed table of contents and a list of charts, figures, and graphs.

Introduction

You can make dietary choices that will promote vigorous good health and a slim, fit body that is free of disease. Your choices of what to eat are the keys to excellent health. This book is designed to empower you with the knowledge needed to choose wisely from the tempting array of food that surrounds us. 

While every aspect of our diet is important, this book focuses on how you can get the healthy fats and oils you need to maintain good health—and how you can avoid the unhealthy fats and oils that contribute to disease. Excellent scientific studies have shown the power of a healthy fat balance to keep us disease-free. A healthy balance of fats and oils can greatly reduce our risk of heart disease, obesity, arthritis, diabetes, strokes, and breast cancer.

Whole, intact beans, nuts, and seeds are all bursting with healthful nutrients. These whole beans, nuts, and seeds do not promote obesity or heart disease. Only in the last century have these beans, nuts, and seeds been routinely plundered for their oils. Oils squeezed out of these healthful whole foods are one of the leading causes of disease worldwide.

Chips and fries, while undeniably tasty, are loaded with unhealthful fats. Liquid oils and solid fats have no fiber, so we do not get the message from our stomachs to stop eating. Like white flour, these oils have been depleted of their healthful vitamins and minerals—they have been transformed into “empty calorie” junk food.

In the Garden of Eden, any food choice was healthful. In a modern restaurant or supermarket, many of the food choices can be perilous to your health. Our food industry, now taking in well over two trillion dollars per year in the United States alone, has altered our food choices. Our food industry has many priorities other than the health of its customers. In many cases, food marketing is decided in corporate boardrooms based upon profit. Unfortunately, the most profitable foods are often the least healthy. Attempts by our government to make our food more healthful are frequently thwarted by well-funded lobbies.

We now know that food choices contribute to the widespread chronic diseases of today, and we also know that food choices can prevent and even reverse them. Your diet is powerful. We know more than ever about the artery-clogging fats in milk and meat—and the contaminants that modern industry introduces into the animals they come from. Modern medicine, for all its heroic efforts, has not tackled the primary cause of so many chronic diseases: diet.

Americans spend the most money per person on health and yet two-thirds of us are overweight. The wars on cancer and heart disease are being lost. Half of Americans are on prescription medication. Over 100 million Americans have elevated blood cholesterol levels. Even our youth are experiencing “adult onset” diabetes and high obesity rates. All of these problems can be solved with a change in food choices. In our much-publicized health care debate, we have largely ignored the fact that a healthy diet with the right balance of fats and oils can prevent most chronic diseases. A change in diet is the only way to make our health care system viable.

Who do we trust for health and nutrition information? Real nutrition science has been buried under an avalanche of bought science and endless uninformed opinions. Even the best researchers can be biased when it comes to the foods that their mother served. So many popular books push the author’s personal diet without a true understanding of the health effects of fats and oils. I have based the information in this book on hundreds of clinical and intervention trials that look at the relationship between diet and health. I have carefully screened these studies for funding bias, since studies funded by industries are consistent in the support of their own products.

My own study of nutritional biochemistry is based upon the analysis of diets for nutrients. I have developed software to analyze the balance and amount of the important fats and oils in daily diets. Dietary analysis is a convenient and scientific way to show which foods contribute, for example, an excess of saturated fats to a daily diet. I will show you the healthy and harmful components of fats and oils that are revealed by these analytical techniques. 

You can become healthier and less dependent on insurance and doctors by choosing healthy food. You can choose to eat less saturated fat and less junk food. My goal is to help you make these choices.

I look forward to your comments and suggestions,
Steve Blake, June, 2017
A special thanks to Dr. William Harris, M.D. for his generous support of this book project.

Thanks to Catherine Blake for her invaluable editing and design ideas.

 

Back Cover:

 

Back cover

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION      3
TABLE OF CONTENTS 6
LIST OF FIGURES   13
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO DIETARY FATS AND OILS      16
SATURATED FACTS   17
MONOUNSATURATED FACTS   18
JUST THE ESSENTIALS     19
TRANS-FATTY ACIDS, THE BREAD AND BUTTER OF DISEASE    20
THREE KINDS OF FAT      20
WHAT HAPPENED TO OUR FATS AND OILS? 21
DIGESTION AND TRANSPORT OF FOOD FATS      22
COMPARING THE OILS IN FOOD    23
COMPARING FATS AND OILS 24
HOW EPA IS MADE IN THE BODY   25
EICOSANOIDS—CELLULAR ACTIVISTS      26
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 27
QUIZ  28
CHAPTER 2: SATURATED FATS, THE HARD FACTS 31
HOW SATURATED FATS ARE USED IN OUR BODIES 31
HOW EXCESS SATURATED FATS INCREASE BLOOD CHOLESTEROL  31
SATURATED FATS AND DISEASE    33
SATURATED FATS AND DIABETES   34
SATURATED FATS AND BLOOD CHOLESTEROL      34
HOW MUCH SATURATED FAT IS TOO MUCH? 35
SATURATED FATS MADE IN THE BODY     37
SATURATED FATS IN FOOD  37
SATURATED FATS IN DIETS 41
STRUCTURE OF SATURATED FATS   48
LENGTH OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS     49
THE ACID DELTA END AND THE METHYL OMEGA END     50
QUIZ  52
REFERENCES: 54
CHAPTER 3: MONOUNSATURATED FATS     55
OLEIC ACID  55
DOUBLE BONDS      57
OMEGA-9 FATTY ACID      58
DOUBLE BONDS AND OXIDATION    59
ANTIOXIDANTS THAT PROTECT FATTY ACIDS     60
CIS AND TRANS CONFIGURATIONS  61
BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CIS AND TRANS BONDS    62
COMMON MONOUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS  63
SHORTHAND NOTATION      64
OTHER MONOUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS   64
COMMON AND UNCOMMON MONOUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 66
QUIZ  67
REFERENCES: 69
CHAPTER 4: ESSENTIAL FATS     70
THE MEANING OF ESSENTIAL      70
ACTIVATION OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS 70
ALA AND LA ARE NEEDED INSIDE OUR BODIES   71
OTHER LONG-CHAIN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS    72
LINOLEIC ACID, THE EASY ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID    73
FOOD SOURCES OF LINOLEIC ACID 74
LINOLEIC ACID IN COMMON DIETS 76
THE STRUCTURE OF LINOLEIC ACID      77
ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID, THE HARD-TO-GET ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID  78
FOOD SOURCES OF ALA     78
ALA IN OILS AND FATS    79
ALA IN SOME COMMON DIETS      81
STRUCTURE OF ALA  82
WHY ALA AND LA CANNOT BE MADE IN THE BODY 84
SUMMARY FOR ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS   86
QUIZ  86
REFERENCES: 89
CHAPTER 5: TRANS-FATTY ACIDS, THE BREAD AND BUTTER OF DISEASE     90
INTRODUCTION      90
DIETARY SOURCES OF TRANS-FATTY ACIDS      90
ALTERNATIVES TO PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED OILS     92
FRYING      92
SNACK FOODS 93
BAKERY PRODUCTS   93
THE RISKS OF REDUCING TRANS FATS    94
PALM AND OTHER TROPICAL OILS  94
ANIMAL FATS TO REPLACE HYDROGENATED OILS  94
DESIGNER OILS     94
CHOOSING FOOD LOW IN TRANS-FATTY ACIDS    95
WORLDWIDE VARIATION IN TRANS-FATTY ACID INTAKE  95
TRANS FATS IN FOOD IN AMERICA 97
LABELING DECEIT   97
ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF TRANS-FATTY ACIDS  97
HEART DISEASE AND TRANS-FATTY ACIDS 98
TRANS FATS AND BLOOD LIPIDS   99
DIABETES AND TRANS-FATTY ACIDS      100
TRANS-FATTY ACIDS IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN 101
TRANS-FATTY ACIDS FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS AND BEEF  101
STRUCTURE OF TRANS-FATTY ACIDS      103
CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID      108
TRANS-FATTY ACID SUMMARY      111
QUIZ  111
REFERENCES: 114
CHAPTER 6: THREE KINDS OF FAT—TRIGLYCERIDES, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, AND CHOLESTEROL   116
TRIGLYCERIDES IN FOOD, IN FAT CELLS, AND IN BLOOD     116
USES OF TRIGLYCERIDES IN THE BODY   116
THE SHAPE OF TRIGLYCERIDES    117
DIGESTION OF TRIGLYCERIDES    120
HEALTH EFFECTS OF EXCESS TRIGLYCERIDES    121
PHOSPHOLIPIDS     122
PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL    126
PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE      126
PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE     126
PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINE      127
SPHINGOLIPIDS     127
CHOLESTEROL AND PLANT STEROLS 128
PLANT STEROLS     131
QUIZ  133
REFERENCES: 136
CHAPTER 7: WHAT HAPPENED TO OUR FATS AND OILS?  137
THE USES OF FATS AND OILS     137
HOW OIL USED TO BE MADE 137
MODERN OIL PROCESSING   138
COMPOSITION OF CRUDE FOOD OILS      138
CHANGING THE SEEDS      139
COLD PRESSED OILS 140
PREPARING THE SEEDS, BEANS, OR GRAINS FOR PROCESSING  141
EXPELLER PRESSED OILS   141
HEXANE EXTRACTION OF OILS     141
THE LOSS OF LECITHIN: DEGUMMING     144
CAUSTIC REFINING  144
BLEACHING OF EDIBLE OILS      145
DEWAXING    146
HYDROGENATION     146
WINTERIZATION     148
DEODORIZATION OR PHYSICAL REFINING  148
VITAMIN E LOST IN OIL PROCESSING    149
CHEMICALS LEACHING INTO OILS FROM BOTTLES 150
FAKE FATS   151
INTERESTERIFICATION     151
STRUCTURED LIPIDS 151
DAG: DIACYLGLYCEROL     152
FAT MIMETICS AND FAT SUBSTITUTES    152
QUIZ  153
REFERENCES: 155
CHAPTER 8: DIGESTION AND TRANSPORT OF FOOD FATS 157
DIGESTION OF FATS AND OILS    157
DIGESTION OF FATS IN THE MOUTH AND STOMACH      157
BILE EMULSIFIES FAT     158
VERY LOW FAT DIETS      158
BILE COMPOSITION AND ACTION   159
DIGESTION OF FATS AND OILS IN THE INTESTINE     160
BLOOD CHOLESTEROL, STEROLS, AND BILE      161
ABSORPTION OF LIPIDS    162
CHYLOMICRONS      163
LIPOPROTEINS: TRANSPORT OF LIPIDS THROUGH THE BLOODSTREAM   165
CHYLOMICRON TRANSPORT   165
VERY LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS 166
VITAMIN E AND LIPOPROTEINS    166
LDL: LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS 168
HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS     169
MEASURING BLOOD LDL AND HDL LEVELS  170
MEASURING TOTAL SERUM CHOLESTEROL   171
RATIOS OF LIPOPROTEINS  171
METABOLISM OF FATS AND OILS   172
QUIZ  174
REFERENCES: 176
CHAPTER 9: FATS AND OILS IN FOOD    178
NUTS AND SEEDS    178
OLEIC ACID IN NUTS AND SEEDS  178
SATURATED FATS IN NUTS AND SEEDS    179
VITAMIN E IN NUTS AND SEEDS   180
ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID IN NUTS AND SEEDS    182
LINOLEIC ACID IN NUTS AND SEEDS     183
FATTY ACIDS IN COMMONLY SELECTED FOOD CHOICES   185
TOTAL FAT IN FOOD 186
SATURATED FAT IN FOOD   187
CHOLESTEROL IN COMMON FOOD SELECTIONS     189
TRANS FATS IN SELECTED FOODS  190
MONOUNSATURATED FATS IN SELECTED FOODS    190
LINOLEIC ACID IN SELECTED FOOD SOURCES    191
ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID IN SELECTED FOOD SOURCES   193
EPA AND DHA IN SELECTED FOOD SOURCES      194
VITAMIN E IN SELECTED FOOD SOURCES  195
QUIZ  196
REFERENCES: 198
CHAPTER 10: COMPARING FATS AND OILS 199
WHAT MAKES AN OIL OR FAT HEALTHY?   199
A NICE BALANCE OF THE ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS     199
OILS NEED THE PROTECTION OF VITAMIN E     200
AVOID TRANS FATS  200
SATURATED FATS    201
ORGANIC OILS ARE HEALTHIER    202
PROCESSING CAN RUIN A GOOD OIL      202
COMPARING FATS AND OILS 202
BUTTER      202
CANOLA OIL  203
COCOA BUTTER      205
COCONUT OIL 206
CORN OIL    208
COTTONSEED OIL    209
FLAX OIL    209
LARD  210
OLIVE OIL   210
PALM OIL    211
PEANUT OIL  212
SAFFLOWER OIL     213
SESAME OIL  213
SOYBEAN OIL 214
SUNFLOWER OIL     215
VEGETABLE SHORTENING    216
GENETIC ALTERATION OF OIL SEEDS     217
MUTAGENIC BREEDING      217
GENETIC ENGINEERING     218
QUIZ: 219
REFERENCES: 221
CHAPTER 11: COMPARING LESS COMMON OILS    223
UNCOMMON OILS     223
ALMOND OIL  223
AMARANTH OIL      223
APRICOT KERNEL OIL      224
AVOCADO OIL 224
BLACK CURRANT OIL 225
BORAGE OIL  226
CANDLENUT OIL     226
CARAWAY OIL 227
CASHEW OIL  227
CHERRY OIL  227
CHIA OIL    227
ECHIUM OIL  228
EVENING PRIMROSE OIL    229
GOLD OF PLEASURE OIL    229
GRAPESEED OIL     230
HAZELNUT OIL      231
HEMP OIL    231
HONESTY SEED OIL  232
MACADAMIA NUT OIL 232
MANGO OIL   232
MARIGOLD OIL      233
NIGELLA OIL 233
NIGER OIL   233
NUTMEG BUTTER     234
OAT OIL     234
PASSIONFRUIT SEED OIL   235
PERILLA SEED OIL  235
PISTACHIO NUT OIL 236
POPPY SEED OIL    236
PURSLANE SEED OIL 236
RICE BRAN OIL     236
SHEA BUTTER 237
WALNUT OIL  237
WHEATGERM OIL     237
QUIZ  238
REFERENCES: 240
CHAPTER 12: EICOSANOID PRECURSORS, HOW EPA IS MADE    242
HOW THE ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS ARE ELONGATED AND DESATURATED 242
CAN OUR BODIES MAKE ENOUGH EPA OR DO WE NEED TO EAT FISH OR FISH OILS?  243
DIETARY GUIDELINES AND INTAKES FOR EPA AND ALA  245
COMPETITION FOR THE DESATURATION ENZYMES  246
THE RATIO OF LA TO ALA  247
HORMONES AFFECT DESATURATION  250
NUTRITION AND DESATURATION    252
OTHER FACTORS THAT AFFECT DESATURATION    253
CONVERSION OF ALA TO EPA, STEP BY STEP    254
BLOOD LEVELS OF EPA AND ARACHIDONIC ACID  256
QUIZ  257
REFERENCES: 260
CHAPTER 13: EICOSANOIDS—CELLULAR ACTIVISTS      262
EICOSANOID PRECURSORS   262
EICOSANOIDS 262
EICOSANOIDS IN INFLAMMATION   263
THE EICOSANOIDS   264
THROMBOXANES      264
THE BALANCE BETWEEN SERIES 2 AND SERIES 3 THROMBOXANES      265
THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF THROMBOXANE     267
LEUKOTRIENES      268
BIOSYNTHESIS OF LEUKOTRIENES  268
ASTHMA AND LEUKOTRIENES 268
INFLAMMATION AND LEUKOTRIENES 269
PROSTACYCLINS     270
BLOOD CLOTTING AND PROSTACYCLINS    271
KIDNEYS AND PROSTACYCLIN      271
ASPIRIN, PROSTACYCLIN, AND THROMBOXANE    272
PROSTAGLANDINS    274
BIOSYNTHESIS OF PROSTAGLANDINS      276
DIETARY FATTY ACIDS AND PROSTAGLANDINS    277
REGULATION OF PROSTAGLANDINS  277
PROSTAGLANDIN E, PGE    278
INFLAMMATION AND PGE    279
BLOOD CLOTTING AND PGE  279
IMMUNE RESPONSE AND PGE 280
LUNGS AND PGE     280
DIGESTION AND PGE 280
OTHER EFFECTS OF PGE    281
PROSTAGLANDIN D, PGD    282
PROSTAGLANDIN F, PGF2?  282
PROSTAGLANDIN J, PGJ    283
PGJ AND TUMORS    283
QUIZ  284
REFERENCES: 286
CHAPTER 14: HEART DISEASE AND DIETARY FATS      288
INTRODUCTION      288
HEART ATTACK RISK FACTORS     289
DIETARY SATURATED FAT AND HEART DISEASE   290
DIETARY TRANS FAT AND HEART DISEASE 292
DIETARY CHOLESTEROL AND HEART DISEASE     295
THE EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM     296
HOW HEART ATTACKS HAPPEN      297
TO AVOID A HEART ATTACK 297
ACTIVITY AND FITNESS    299
STRESS REDUCTION AND RELAXATION     300
QUIZ  301
REFERENCES: 303
ANSWERS TO QUIZZES      305
INDEX 306

List of Figures

Figure 1    How excess saturated fats raise blood cholesterol            33
Figure 2    The saturated fatty acid content of one serving of various foods            38
Figure 3    The amount and variation of saturated fats in some common nuts and seeds            39
Figure 4    A comparative graph of saturated fats in common livestock products            40
Figure 5    The amount of saturated fats in two tablespoons of common fats and oils            41
Figure 6    Graph of saturated fat in an Atkin's diet            42
Figure 7    Graph of saturated fat in a typical American diet            43
Figure 8    Graph of saturated fat in a Mediterranean diet            44
Figure 9    Graph of saturated fat in a transitional vegetarian diet            45
Figure 10   Graph of saturated fat in a whole food vegan diet            46
Figure 11   Graph of saturated fat in a raw food vegan diet            47
Figure 12   Graph of saturated fat in a diet for preventing heart disease            48
Figure 13   Chart of saturated fatty acids            49
Figure 14   The structure of a saturated fatty acid            50
Figure 15   Structures of 4 saturated fats: lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids            51
Figure 16   Graph of oleic acid in nuts and seeds            55
Figure 17   Graph of oleic acid in common oils            56
Figure 18   The structure of unsaturated bonds            57
Figure 19   The structures of oleic acid and stearic acid showing a double bond            58
Figure 20   3-D structure drawings of stearic acid (left) and oleic acid (right)            59
Figure 21   Structural differences between natural cis and trans double bonds            62
Figure 22   3-D drawings of cis and trans double bonds            63
Figure 23   Structural differences with positional isomers in two fatty acids            65
Figure 24   Chart of monounsaturated fatty acids with examples            67
Figure 25   Important roles for essential fatty acids and their derivatives            71
Figure 26   Graph of linoleic acid content of some common foods            75
Figure 27   Graph of linoleic acid content of some common oils            76
Figure 28   The structure of linoleic acid showing the double bond at omega-6            77
Figure 29   Food sources of the essential fatty acid ALA            79
Figure 30   Graph of ALA content of some common oils            80
Figure 31   Chart of LA and ALA in eight diets with added flax powder            82
Figure 32   Structure of alpha-linolenic acid            83
Figure 33   Delta-5 desaturase and the structure of EPA            85
Figure 34   Chart of trans fats in dairy products versus hydrogenation in 5 countries            91
Figure 35   Major sources of trans fats in America            96
Figure 36   Structural difference between natural and trans-fatty acids            104
Figure 37   Structure of trans-oleic acid and vaccenic acid            105
Figure 38   3-D structure of trans-oleic, oleic, and stearic acids with melting points            106
Figure 39   Chart of trans isomers in milk fat and from hydrogenation            107
Figure 40   Structure of a conjugated fatty acid            109
Figure 41   3-D representation of a triglyceride            118
Figure 42   3-D representation of trans-oleic acid            119
Figure 43   3-D representation of stearic acid            119
Figure 44   3-D representation of natural cis-oleic acid            119
Figure 45   A triglyceride with bent unsaturated fatty acids            120
Figure 46   A triglyceride with straight saturated fatty acids            120
Figure 47   Comparing structures of triglycerides and phospholipids            122
Figure 48   Phospholipid content of coconut, canola, and soy oils            123
Figure 49   Comparing structures of four types of phospholipids            123
Figure 50   Phospholipids in cell membranes            125
Figure 51   The structure of sphingomyelin, a type of sphingolipid            128
Figure 52   The structure of cholesterol            129
Figure 53   The structure of stigmasterol, a plant sterol            130
Figure 54   Phytosterol content of plants. Open bars are free and black bars are esterified.132
Figure 55   Phytosterol content of nuts and seed. Black bars are beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. Grey bars are other phytosterols.            133
Figure 56   Some oils have not been genetically engineered or mutated            140
Figure 57   Some genetically engineered oils            140
Figure 58   Oils not normally extracted with the solvent hexane            142
Figure 59   Oils routinely extracted with the solvent hexane            143
Figure 60   Beneficial nutrients eliminated during bleaching of oils            146
Figure 61   Hydrogenation changes melting temperatures            147
Figure 62   Triglyceride structure, black is carbon, white is hydrogen, and red is oxygen            157
Figure 63   Bitter tonics can stimulate bile after fatty meals            159
Figure 64   How hydrolysis splits two fatty acids off of a triglyceride            160
Figure 65   Micelles have water-soluble outsides to make fats in the middle accessible            163
Figure 66   Chylomicrons transport dietary lipids            164
Figure 67   Vitamin E to protect LDL            167
Figure 68   How VLDL becomes LDL, with changes in cholesterol and triglycerides            168
Figure 69   The liver makes fifty quadrillion molecules of cholesterol            169
Figure 70   Healthiest ratios between total cholesterol and HDL            170
Figure 71   Involvement of B-vitamins in the metabolic burning of fat            172
Figure 72   Graph of oleic acid in common nuts and seeds            179
Figure 73   Graph of saturated fats in selected nuts and seeds            180
Figure 74   Graph of alpha-tocopherol in nuts and seeds            181
Figure 75   Graph of total tocopherols in vitamin E, in nuts and seeds            182
Figure 76   Graph of ALA in selected nuts and seeds            183
Figure 77   Graph of linoleic acid in selected nuts and seeds            184
Figure 78   Chart of food servings to be analyzed            185
Figure 79   Graph of total fat in common foods            186
Figure 80   Graph of saturated fat in common foods            188
Figure 81   Graph of cholesterol in common foods            189
Figure 82   Graph of trans fat in common foods            190
Figure 83   Graph of monounsaturated fat in common foods            191
Figure 84   Graph of linoleic acid, a plant-based omega-6, in common foods            192
Figure 85   Graph of ALA in common foods            193
Figure 86   Graphs of EPA and DHA in food            194
Figure 87   Graph of vitamin E in selected foods            195
Figure 88   Graph of saturated fats in common oils            201
Figure 89   Graph of ALA in common oils with ratios of LA/ALA            205
Figure 90   Balancing the essential fatty acids in cooking oils            206
Figure 91   Graph of vitamin E in common oils            208
Figure 92   Which is the best oil?            212
Figure 93   Graph of oleic acid in common oils            216
Figure 94   Graph of vitamin E in less common oils            225
Figure 95   Graph of gamma-linolenic acid in some oils            226
Figure 96   Graph of oleic acid in some less common oils            229
Figure 97   Graph of linoleic acid in some less common oils            231
Figure 98   Graph of saturated fats in some less common oils            234
Figure 99   Graph of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in some less common oils            235
Figure 100  Omega-3 and omega-6 eicosanoid precursors            243
Figure 101  The formation of eicosanoid precursors            246
Figure 102  Graph of ALA content of some common oils            248
Figure 103  Chart of the ratio of LA to ALA in selected diets            249
Figure 104  Effects of hormones on the desaturation of ALA            251
Figure 105  Effects of nutrition on the desaturation of ALA            253
Figure 106  Structural changes with delta-6 desaturase converting ALA to stearidonic acid            254
Figure 107  Structural changes of the conversion of stearidonic acid to eicosatetraenoic acid 255
Figure 108  Structural changes of the conversion of eicosatetraenoic acid to EPA            256
Figure 109  Types of eicosanoids            263
Figure 110  Eicosanoid creation diagram            265
Figure 111  The biosynthesis of eicosanoids from arachidonic acid            267
Figure 112  Inflammation triggered by leukotrienes            269
Figure 113  Biosynthesis of prostacyclin            270
Figure 114  Actions of prostacyclin            271
Figure 115  Prostacyclin, thromboxane, and NSAIDs            272
Figure 116  Prostaglandins and their formation            274
Figure 117  Series 1, 2, and 3 prostaglandins            276
Figure 118  Chart of eicosanoids made from arachidonic acid and their functions            282
Figure 119  Normal artery on the left and mostly clogged artery on the right            288
Figure 120  Dietary factors that raise blood cholesterol            289
Figure 121  Damaged artery in A is healed with a low-fat plant-based diet (courtesy Esselstyn) 290
Figure 122  Dietary fat and heart attack risk            291
Figure 123  Animal fat versus heart deaths            292
Figure 124  Chart of saturated fat plus trans fat            293
Figure 125  Dietary factors affecting the risk of heart attacks            294
Figure 126  Sources of trans fats in American adult diets (USDA)            295