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Constituents of Medicinal Plants

by Dr. Steve Blake, ScD, MH, Registered Herbalist, AHG


Constituents of Medicinal Plants is a 914 page electronic book in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format. This definitive herbal reference covers over 3000 constituents of medicinal plants with definitions for about one third of these constituents. In tens of thousands of cases, these constituents have quantitative data included.

Chamomile makes a soothing tea. Did you know that the blue oil in chamomile is azulene, an active anti-inflammatory? Did you know that azulene is also found in peppermint, valerian, and yarrow? Azulene is also found in cubeb, elecampane, and patchouli.

Phytomedicine is now becoming recognized as a science. This information on the constituents of the medicinal plants clarifies the uses of these plants. As more phytochemicals are being discovered and tested, traditional uses of the medicinal plants are being verified. This provides a theoretical background for empirical knowledge.

Constituents of Medicinal Plants does more than just list constituents for each plant. There are almost one thousand definitions of these plant chemicals. Examples and therapeutic actions are given. Most valuable and unique are the listings of plants containing these constituents.

Increase your understanding of medicinal plant chemicals and enjoy the broad scope of information gathered together into one concise electronic volume.

This book has a companion volume called the Medicinal Plant Constituents. This companion volume lists over 700 medicinal plants followed by their phytochemical constituents.

In this electronic book, you may use the find feature (an icon like binoculars) to quickly go to any word or phrase.

Download a free sample PDF

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(914 pages)
by Steve Blake

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The Constituents of Medicinal Plants
A Few Excerpts from the Full Book
By Steve Blake AHG, DSc, Master Herbalist
Available from LifeLong Press
Copyright 2004 Steve Blake



Azulene is a volatile oil, with blue-colored constituents, found in anthemis nobilis, matricaria chamomilla, andir excelsa, and inula helenium, to name a few.

Examples: valerian (rt); peppermint (pl); turmeric (rh); yarrow (lf); elecampane (rt); patchouli (pl).

Therapeutic actions: anti-inflammatory;anti-ulcer ;febrifuge.

HERBS with specific constituent information are listed below: 
Azulene (fruit): Cubeb.
Azulene (plant): Peppermint, Patchouli, Chamomile.
Azulene (rhizome): Calamus.
Azulene (root):  Valerian Root, Elecampane Flowers.
Azulene - A Blue Oil Similar To Azulene: Yarrow.
Azulene - Blue Colored:  Chamomile.
Azulene 0%-0.714% (leaf):  Yarrow(3).

ESSENTIAL OILS that include  ‘AZULENE’ as a constituent are: 
Chamomile Oil(2) and Patchouli Oil.

ESSENTIAL OILS with specific constituent information are listed below:
Azulene Content Is Higher In Matricaria: Chamomile Oil.

CHINESE HERBAL REMEDIES that include ‘AZULENE’  as a constituent are:
Cinnamon Bark.

AYURVEDIC HERBS with specific constituent information are listed below: 
Azulene (rhizome): Turmeric.


Quercitin is a flavonol having a wide distribution in the plant kingdom.

Examples: apricot (fr), wormwood (pl), potato.

HERBS with specific constituent information are listed below: 
Quercit (sugar): Oak Bark.
Quercitannic Acid: Oak Bark(2).
Quercite:  Knotgrass.
Quercitin: Chaparral, Meadowsweet, Hawthorne Berry, Aster Root, Pau D’arco, Linden Flowers.
Quercitin - With Calcium Oxalate:  Mandrake Root.
Quercitol: Knotgrass.
Quercitrin:  Elder Flowers, Yarrow, Knotgrass, Hawthorne Berry, Chamomile.
Quercitrin (bark): Oak Bark, Horse Chestnut.
Quercitrin (branches): Thuja.
Quercitrin (bulb): Scilla.
Quercitrin (flower): Linden Flowers, Blackthorn.
Quercitrin (flower) (leaf):  Peach Seed.
Quercitrin (fruit):  Black Currant, Hops.
Quercitrin (leaf): Uva Ursi, Hawthorne Berry, Agrimony, Yellow Dock Root, Bilberry, Witch Hazel, Cacao, Oleander, Goldenrod.
Quercitrin (plant):  Knotgrass, Dill, Motherwort, Eucalyptus, St. John’s Wort, Water Pepper, Adonis.

ESSENTIAL OILS with specific constituent information are listed below:
Quercitrin (leaf): Castor Oil.

CHINESE HERBAL REMEDIES with specific constituent information are listed below: 
Quercitin (fruit): Apricot Kernel.
Quercitol: Polygonatum.
Quercitrin (leaf): Mulberry Leaves.

AYURVEDIC HERBS with specific constituent information are listed below: 
Quercitin: Saffron.
Quercitin-3-galactoside (leaves):  Banyan.


Terpineol is a terpene found in long leaf pine and petitgrain oil that also occurs as a mixture of three isomeric hydrocarbons. It is used as an antiseptic and in the manufacture of soap and perfume.

Examples: turmeric (eo), linden (fl), sage (lf), nutmeg (sd), yarrow (pl).

HERBS with specific constituent information are listed below: 
Terpineol (branches):  Thuja.
Terpineol (essential Oil): Peppermint, Gentian, Hops, Khella.
Terpineol (flower):  Linden Flowers.
Terpineol (fruit): Cayenne Pepper, Black Pepper(2), Cubeb, Black Currant, Cranberry (nw).
Terpineol (fruit) (plant): Dill(2).
Terpineol (leaf):  Sage.
Terpineol (plant): Savory, Yarrow, Dill, Thyme.
Terpineol (root):  Lovage, Pine, Licorice.
Terpineol (seed):  Nutmeg.
Terpineol (silk/stigma/style): Cornsilk.
Terpineol - A Terpene: Oregano.
Terpineol 0.000009%-0.00011% Fruit-juice:  Orange.
Terpineol 0.00001%-0.036% (leaf):  Hyssop(2).
Terpineol 0.00003%-0.0003% (flower): Hyssop.
Terpineol 0.0001% (fruit): Anise Seed.
Terpineol 0.0001% (seed):  Celery Seeds.
Terpineol 0.0001%-0.0006% (fruit): Fennel Seed.
Terpineol 0.0001%-0.0039% (plant): Yerba Buena.
Terpineol 0.00027% (leaf): Parsley.
Terpineol 0.0003%-0.004% (fruit):  Juniper Berries.
Terpineol 0.0005%-0.091% (leaf): Sage(2).
Terpineol 0.0007%-0.0034% (plant): Rosemary.
Terpineol 0.0007%-0.0418% (plant): Rosemary(3).
Terpineol 0.0008%-0.008% (root): Lovage.
Terpineol 0.0008%-0.05% (rhizome): Ginger(2).
Terpineol 0.0008%-0.4518% (plant): Horsemint.
Terpineol 0.001%-0.005% (fruit): Orange.
Terpineol 0.001%-0.0056% (leaf): Sage.
Terpineol 0.0012%-0.0015% (shoot): Hyssop.
Terpineol 0.002%-0.0095% (plant):  Rosemary.
Terpineol 0.0022% (seed):  Parsley.
Terpineol 0.0024%-0.15% (plant): Rosemary(2).
Terpineol 0.003%-0.0275% (fruit):  Cumin.
Terpineol 0.0036%-0.0044% (fruit): Coriander.
Terpineol 0.0036%-0.0239% (plant): Basil(2).
Terpineol 0.0036%-0.65% (plant): Thyme(3).
Terpineol 0.0057%-0.0125% (seed):  Celery Seeds.
Terpineol 0.007%-0.014%: Pennyroyal.
Terpineol 0.0079%-0.0673% (plant): Thyme(2).
Terpineol 0.0085%-0.02% (fruit): Star Anise.
Terpineol 0.009%-0.019% (flower):  Daffodil(2).
Terpineol 0.012%-0.96% (seed): Nutmeg.
Terpineol 0.016%-0.138% (leaf):  Bay Leaves.
Terpineol 0.018%-0.0225% (leaf): Boldo.
Terpineol 0.0301%-0.43% (fruit): Cardamon.
Terpineol 0.2% (essential Oil) (leaf): Celery Seeds.
Terpineol 0.3%-0.5% Essential Oil-fruit: Celery Seeds.
Terpineol 0.3%-1.4% Essential Oil-fruit: Celery Seeds.
Terpineol 0.76% (essential Oil): Water Pepper.
Terpineol 6.9% (essential Oil) (root): Celery Seeds.
Terpineol Tr:  Sage.
Terpineol Tr-1500 (rhizome): Calamus.

ESSENTIAL OILS that include  ‘TERPINEOL’ as a constituent are: 
Cajeput Oil, Cypress Oil, Geranium Oil,  Juniper Oil and Orange Oil.

CHINESE HERBAL REMEDIES with specific constituent information are listed below: 
Terpineol (essential Oil): Apricot Kernel.
Terpineol 0.0001%-0.0072% (leaf):  Cinnamon Bark.
Terpineol 0.0002%-0.011% (fruit):  Mandarin Orange.
Terpineol 0.0006%-0.005% (essential Oil):  Lemon Peel.
Terpineol 0.004% (fruit):  Mandarin Orange.
Terpineol 0.4%-7.3% (essential Oil): Lemon Peel.
Terpineol 1.1%-12.5% (essential Oil):  Lemon Peel.

AYURVEDIC HERBS that include ‘TERPINEOL’  as a constituent are:

AYURVEDIC HERBS with specific constituent information are listed below: 
Terpineol (rhizome): Turmeric, Wild Ginger.
Terpineol (wood):  Sandalwood.
Terpineol 0.05% (essential Oil): Turmeric.